by EQUALS on JANUARY 24, 2017

Hi All
I’ve been working on a post-Rochford Basket of Assessment Approach (after Swiss Cottage School, 2014) and I thought some people may be interested. This is my updated version.

Some explanatory points.
(i). Despite having looked at lots of different alternatives I’m still of the view that MAPP (for SLD) and Routes (or Quest) for Learning for PMLD are the most convincing. I understand Mike Sissons is re-writing MAPP, but in any event I’d be surprised if he radically changed the Continuum of Skill Development (CSD) that is the heart beat of MAPP or the principle of spread sheet recording which makes quantitative measurements SO much easier. It is perfectly possible to put any learning intention, including any derived from RfL, into the MAPP spreadsheet and this means that both MAPP and RfL are ideal for both qualitative and quantitative data. There seems little doubt however, that schools’ use of both MAPP and RfL must be completely wholehearted. It is not possible to pick these off the shelf at the end of every year (or even term) and expect them to work effectively. All school staff need to be really comfortable with how they work and that takes time and commitment.

(ii)  There is no denying that SCERTS is very good, giving lots of detailed and cross-disciplinary information, but it is also very complex and very time consuming. It is the old adage of the more you put in the more you get out; however, I am not convinced that the additional information gained from the SCERTS process is worth the extra effort, time and complexity involved. This is especially so with a Basket of Assessments Approach because this very process views the assessment through a number of different angles and perspectives anyway.

(iii)  There seems no reason to stop using the P scales as a broad academic assessment, even though Rochford suggests we will no longer have to use them as a statutory assessment tool. The P scales have always provided a common language and an essential part of both SLD and PMLD definitions and a simple yearly single P scale assessment gives invaluable information. The point with this is however, not to spend a huge amount of time on assessing the yearly P scale attainment, since the detailed information will be obtained from other sources such as MAPP and RfL. This means that more intense P scale measurements like Pivats are largely pointless since you will want (and need) to know that a learner is still on P4 or now on P7, though believing that a learner is P4 (iii) or P7 (ii) brings very little extra to the table. I do not believe that there are any circumstances where the use of B Squared can be justified.

(iv)  The middle sections are directly related to Rochford and depend on whether pupils are engaged with ‘subject specific learning’ (SSL) or not. I take this to be National Curriculum (NC) subjects, particularly Maths and English, and is a recognition that SSL may not be the optimal model for all children. Again, this is a judgement call, but for me it is MUCH more difficult to build a case for any NC subject, including English and Mathematics (and by reference Literacy and Numeracy) for those with SLD and PMLD since it is a defining characteristic that all those with SLD and PMLD will be working consistently and over time at levels below (and usually well below) the subject’s starting point (DfE, 2012; Imray and Colley, in print). Having the start of a curriculum model as the summit of ambition cannot be a healthy state of affairs for either pedagogy or curriculum and might indeed, constitute a startling lack of ambition for all learners on the PMLD and SLD spectrums!

(vi)  The IPKeS Standards OR the Engagement Scales are Rochford requirements but only up to KS2. It is interesting to note that Rochford is entirely silent on KS3, 4 and 5. I cannot believe that KS3 will continue to be subject to the P scales and can therefore only assume that Rochford takes the (unspoken) view that if pupils haven’t got the 3R’s by the time they’re 11, they’re probably not going to get them. This seems to me to be an eminently sensible position.

(vii)  Rochford is very clear that a wide variety of evidence is going to be increasingly important, and one must assume that this should include qualitative evidence.

Rather than following the letter of the P scales, it is much more important that knowledge, concepts and skills are acquired in a range of contexts and situations, according to a varied and stimulating curriculum. Assessment should be similarly varied to evaluate pupils’ attainment and progress in different ways according to their age, interests and needs. (Rochford Review, 2016, p14)

We need therefore to make sure that any qualitative evidence is as robust as possible and the best way of doing that is through extended longitudinal studies of as many learners as we can, and perhaps even, all learners in the school. The use of digital recording opportunities makes this a much less onerous option than even 10 years ago, especially as teachers are likely to be using such evidence within MAPP and RfL anyway. Kate Davies of the SLD Forum (and of Ash Lea School in Nottingham) speaks highly of Evidence for Learning as a suitable app for collation of qualitative evidence.

(vii)  I have put it in but I remain sceptical of the benefits of KS4 and KS5 accreditation schemes such as offered by ASDAN and others, though many may well be used as schemes of work. I do not see how Ofsted can take seriously any accreditation scheme that only requires continued life to guarantee a pass, and failure is impossible. The work required of staff (rather than students!) is however considerable, and quite possibly an unnecessary distraction since no worthwhile summative or formative information can be forthcoming from the actual accreditation procedure.

(viii)  Given the DfE’s (2015) suggestion that all schools need to follow up on post school outcomes, it seems pertinent to spend some time researching what happens to learners after they leave school. One would assume that this to a degree, should inform curriculum development, since the curriculum should in large part be related to preparing learners for their next stage, whatever that may be.

In relation to external moderation, Rochford are keen that schools form monitoring clusters and it makes sense that schools open themselves up to a ‘critical friend’ approach in order to ensure that any and all data is as objectively reached as possible.

One final issue, still to be resolved: how do schools judge ‘good’ progress? This is a REALLY thorny problem. I can point people to GAS (Goal Attainment Scaling) commonly used to assess levels of rehab in the NHS, and clicking on the link referenced in Turner-Stokes (2016) below gives you a free download of the principles and a handy set of guides on how to use them. GAS works on the basis of quite a complex mathematical formula which factors in both difficulty and relevance of targets, though thankfully, an excel spreadsheet provided makes this easier to assess. Be cautious however, because they’re keen on SMART targets and Penny Lacey’s warning that those with PMLD are ‘poor consumers of SMART targets’ (Lacey, 2009) surely also applies to most with SLD as well.

I am worried that Ofsted’s obsession with defining good progress will lead us into the same sort of cul-de-sacs that the P scales led us and perhaps we need to have another debate around SMART and SCRUFFY targets, but this post is long enough already!

All the best

Peter Imray

DfE (2012) Glossary of special educational needs (SEN) terminology. Accessed 8th February 2016.

DfE (2015) Commission on Assessment without Levels. Final Report Accessed 26th November 2015.

Imray P and Colley A (in print) Inclusion is Dead: Long Live Inclusion. London. Routledge.

Kiresuk T and Sherman R (1968) Goal attainment scaling: a general method of evaluating comprehensive mental health programmes. Community Mental Health Journal. 4: 443-453.

Lacey P. (2009) Developing Thinking and Problem Solving Skills. The SLD Experience. 54: 19-24.

Rochford Review (2016) The Rochford Review: final report. Review of assessment for pupils working below the standard of national curriculum tests. Standards and Testing Agency.

Turner-Stokes L (2016) Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) in Rehabilitation: A practical guide. London. Kings College.

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